According to the prescribing information for Xanax, dosing of the medication should be individualized. Medical Dictionary or A-Z List. Is this a problem for people? Xanax works by boosting the effects of a natural chemical made in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA. Retrieved from " https: Alprazolam should be stored at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F 20 to 25 degrees C. Alprazolam (Xanax): What You Need To Know
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Alprazolam overdoses cause excess central nervous system CNS depression and may include one or more of the following symptoms: Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, binds to specific sites on the GABA A gamma-amino-butyric acid receptor. Long-term use causes adaptive changes in the benzodiazepine receptors, making them less sensitive to stimulation and thus making the drugs less potent.
Withdrawal and rebound symptoms commonly occur and necessitate a gradual reduction in dosage to minimize withdrawal effects when discontinuing. Not all withdrawal effects are evidence of true dependence or withdrawal. Recurrence of symptoms such as anxiety may simply indicate that the drug was having its expected anti-anxiety effect and that, in the absence of the drug, the symptom has returned to pretreatment levels.
If the symptoms are more severe or frequent, the person may be experiencing a rebound effect due to the removal of the drug. Either of these can occur without the person actually being drug-dependent. Alprazolam and other benzodiazepines may also cause the development of physical dependence , tolerance , and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms during rapid dose reduction or cessation of therapy after long-term treatment.
In , Romach and colleagues reported that dose escalation is not a characteristic of long-term alprazolam users, and that the majority of long-term alprazolam users change their initial pattern of regular use to one of symptom control only when required. Some common symptoms of alprazolam discontinuation include malaise , weakness, insomnia , tachycardia , lightheadedness, and dizziness. This medication may cause withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt withdrawal or rapid tapering, which in some cases have been known to cause seizures, as well as marked delirium similar to that produced by the anticholinergic tropane alkaloids of Datura scopolamine and atropine.
To some degree, these older benzodiazepines are self-tapering. Factors that determine the risk of psychological dependence or physical dependence and the severity of the benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms during dose reduction of alprazolam include: Alprazolam may be quantified in blood or plasma to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients, provide evidence in an impaired driving arrest, or to assist in a medicolegal death investigation. Most commercial immunoassays for the benzodiazepine class of drugs cross-react with alprazolam, but confirmation and quantitation is usually performed using chromatographic techniques.
Alprazolam is classed as a high-potency triazolobenzodiazepine: As a benzodiazepine, alprazolam produces a variety of therapeutic and adverse effects by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor site on the GABA A receptor and modulating its function; GABA receptor s are the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain. The GABA chemical and receptor system mediates inhibitory or calming effects of alprazolam on the nervous system. The GABA A receptor is made up of 5 subunits out of a possible 19, and GABA A receptors made up of different combinations of subunits have different properties, different locations within the brain, and, importantly, different activities with regard to benzodiazepines.
Alprazolam and other triazolobenzodiazepines like triazolam that have a triazol ring attached to their structure appear to have antidepressant properties, since the structure resembles that of tricyclic antidepressants , which also have rings. The therapeutic properties of alprazolam are similar to other benzodiazepines and include anxiolytic , anticonvulsant , muscle relaxant , hypnotic  and amnesic ; however, it is used mainly as an anxiolytic.
Administration of alprazolam, as compared to lorazepam , has been demonstrated to elicit a statistically significant increase in extracellular dopamine D1 and D2 concentrations in the striatum. The concentration of alprazolam peaks after one to two hours. Two major metabolites are produced: The metabolites, as well as some unmetabolized alprazolam, are filtered out by the kidneys and are excreted in the urine. Alprazolam regular release and orally disintegrating tablets are available as 0.
Alprazolam oral solutions are available as 0. Inactive ingredients in alprazolam tablets and solutions include microcrystalline cellulose , corn starch , docusate sodium , povidone , sodium starch glycollate, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate , colloidal silicon dioxide , and sodium benzoate. In addition, the 0.
Alprazolam is covered under U. Patent 3,, , which was filed on 29 October , granted on 19 October , and expired in September There is a risk of misuse and dependence in both patients and non-medical users of alprazolam; alprazolam's high affinity binding, high potency, and rapid onset increase its abuse potential. The physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome of alprazolam also add to its addictive nature. In the small subgroup of individuals who escalate their doses there is usually a history of alcohol or other substance use disorders.
Alprazolam is one of the most commonly prescribed and misused benzodiazepines in the United States. Men and women are equally likely to use benzodiazepines recreationally. The report found that alprazolam is the most common benzodiazepine for recreational use, followed by clonazepam , lorazepam , and diazepam. Regarding the significant increases detected, it is worthwhile to consider that the number of pharmaceuticals dispensed for legitimate therapeutic uses may be increasing over time, and DAWN estimates are not adjusted to take such increases into account.
Alprazolam, along with other benzodiazepines, is often used with other recreational drugs. These uses include aids to relieve the panic or distress of dysphoric " bad trip " reactions to psychedelic drugs , such as LSD , and the drug-induced agitation and insomnia in the " comedown " stages of stimulant use, such as amphetamine , cocaine , and MDMA allowing sleep. Alprazolam may also be used with other depressant drugs , such as ethanol , heroin and other opioids , in an attempt to enhance their psychological effects.
Alprazolam may be used in conjunction with cannabis , with users citing a synergistic effect achieved after consuming the combination. The poly-drug use of powerful depressant drugs poses the highest level of health concerns due to a significant increase in the likelihood of experiencing an overdose , which may cause fatal respiratory depression. A study claimed that diazepam has a higher misuse potential relative to other benzodiazepines, and that some data suggests that alprazolam and lorazepam resemble diazepam in this respect.
Anecdotally injection of alprazolam has been reported, causing dangerous damage to blood vessels, closure of blood vessels embolization and decay of muscle tissue rhabdomyolysis. Slang terms for alprazolam vary from place to place. Some of the more common terms are shortened versions of the trade name "Xanax", such as Xannies or Xanies and the phonetic equivalent of Zannies;   references to their drug classes, such as benzos or downers; or remark upon their shape or color most commonly a straight, perforated tablet or an oval-shaped pill: Alprazolam is available in English-speaking countries under the following brand names: As of December , in anticipation of the rescheduling of alprazolam to Schedule 8 in Australia—Pfizer Australia announced they would be discontinuing the Xanax brand in Australia as it is no longer commercially viable.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Xanax disambiguation. D Evidence of risk. Benzodiazepine dependence and Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Drugs Across the Spectrum. Retrieved 14 September Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic Demonstrations of the effectiveness of XANAX by systematic clinical study are limited to 4 months duration for anxiety disorder and 4 to 10 weeks duration for panic disorder; however, patients with panic disorder have been treated on an open basis without any apparent loss of benefit.
The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. The Most Popular Prescription Drugs". Retrieved 16 June A Review of the Literature". Comprehensive Review of Psychiatry. Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy 5th ed. Retrieved 22 January The primary care companion for CNS disorders.
A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine, and Misdiagnosis. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 1 October Given the millions of prescriptions written for benzodiazepines about million in , relatively few individuals increase their dose on their own initiative or engage in drug-seeking behavior. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 3 August Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 13 September Prediction of Alprazolam Transfer into Milk". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Fear of Teratogenic Risk and Impact of Counselling".
Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. American Journal of Psychiatry. Integration of Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Retrieved 9 April Results for Two Benzodiazepines". Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. The injectable form is only given by a healthcare professional in a hospital or clinic. Xanax is available in immediate-release tablets.
Some you swallow, and some you let dissolve in your mouth. Extended-release Xanax tablets are also available. You take fewer doses with this form. Xanax also comes in a solution that you take by mouth. The strengths of all forms of lorazepam and Xanax are similar, between 0. Forms and dosages vary depending on what they are used to treat. Your dosage is something to discuss with the prescribing doctor. This effect can be deadly.
Always read the package labels and follow directions carefully. You can learn more about interacting drugs in the detailed interaction information for lorazepam and Xanax. Benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam and Xanax, can be physically and psychologically habit-forming. This is more likely at higher doses and if you have a history of substance abuse. The risk of dependence on these medications or tolerance to them increases the longer you use them.
The risk also increases as you age. Withdrawal symptoms can occur if you stop taking these medications abruptly. Symptoms of withdrawal may include:. Talk to your doctor before stopping either medication. Your doctor can help you taper off slowly. Lorazepam and Xanax are both effective in treating anxiety for a short time.
But they also have many other uses, which are specific to each drug. Additionally, the side effects of each drug are similar, but not exactly the same. My "worry brain" has given me sharp eyes, strong focus, and emotional depth. These are ways that anxiety has made me a stronger and better person. Humans exhibit three types of communication: Enlightenment only comes from one of them. Several types of drugs can help relieve anxiety alongside therapy. Learn what drugs are available and how they work.
For people who have depression or anxiety, these are some of the most insightful and helpful resources on the web.