Delavirdine Flumazenil Indinavir Itraconazole Ketoconazole Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. Please remove another drug before adding this one. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. Results from a Multicenter Trial. In such cases, withdrawal symptoms such as seizures may occur if you suddenly stop using this medication. Alprazolam
The therapeutic properties of alprazolam are similar to other benzodiazepines and include anxiolytic , anticonvulsant , muscle relaxant , hypnotic  and amnesic ; however, it is used mainly as an anxiolytic. Administration of alprazolam, as compared to lorazepam , has been demonstrated to elicit a statistically significant increase in extracellular dopamine D1 and D2 concentrations in the striatum. The concentration of alprazolam peaks after one to two hours. Two major metabolites are produced: The metabolites, as well as some unmetabolized alprazolam, are filtered out by the kidneys and are excreted in the urine.
Alprazolam regular release and orally disintegrating tablets are available as 0. Alprazolam oral solutions are available as 0. Inactive ingredients in alprazolam tablets and solutions include microcrystalline cellulose , corn starch , docusate sodium , povidone , sodium starch glycollate, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate , colloidal silicon dioxide , and sodium benzoate.
In addition, the 0. Alprazolam is covered under U. Patent 3,, , which was filed on 29 October , granted on 19 October , and expired in September There is a risk of misuse and dependence in both patients and non-medical users of alprazolam; alprazolam's high affinity binding, high potency, and rapid onset increase its abuse potential. The physical dependence and withdrawal syndrome of alprazolam also add to its addictive nature.
In the small subgroup of individuals who escalate their doses there is usually a history of alcohol or other substance use disorders. Alprazolam is one of the most commonly prescribed and misused benzodiazepines in the United States. Men and women are equally likely to use benzodiazepines recreationally. The report found that alprazolam is the most common benzodiazepine for recreational use, followed by clonazepam , lorazepam , and diazepam.
Regarding the significant increases detected, it is worthwhile to consider that the number of pharmaceuticals dispensed for legitimate therapeutic uses may be increasing over time, and DAWN estimates are not adjusted to take such increases into account. Alprazolam, along with other benzodiazepines, is often used with other recreational drugs. These uses include aids to relieve the panic or distress of dysphoric " bad trip " reactions to psychedelic drugs , such as LSD , and the drug-induced agitation and insomnia in the " comedown " stages of stimulant use, such as amphetamine , cocaine , and MDMA allowing sleep.
Alprazolam may also be used with other depressant drugs , such as ethanol , heroin and other opioids , in an attempt to enhance their psychological effects. Alprazolam may be used in conjunction with cannabis , with users citing a synergistic effect achieved after consuming the combination. The poly-drug use of powerful depressant drugs poses the highest level of health concerns due to a significant increase in the likelihood of experiencing an overdose , which may cause fatal respiratory depression.
A study claimed that diazepam has a higher misuse potential relative to other benzodiazepines, and that some data suggests that alprazolam and lorazepam resemble diazepam in this respect. Anecdotally injection of alprazolam has been reported, causing dangerous damage to blood vessels, closure of blood vessels embolization and decay of muscle tissue rhabdomyolysis. Slang terms for alprazolam vary from place to place. Some of the more common terms are shortened versions of the trade name "Xanax", such as Xannies or Xanies and the phonetic equivalent of Zannies;   references to their drug classes, such as benzos or downers; or remark upon their shape or color most commonly a straight, perforated tablet or an oval-shaped pill: Alprazolam is available in English-speaking countries under the following brand names: As of December , in anticipation of the rescheduling of alprazolam to Schedule 8 in Australia—Pfizer Australia announced they would be discontinuing the Xanax brand in Australia as it is no longer commercially viable.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Xanax disambiguation. D Evidence of risk. Benzodiazepine dependence and Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Drugs Across the Spectrum. Retrieved 14 September Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic Demonstrations of the effectiveness of XANAX by systematic clinical study are limited to 4 months duration for anxiety disorder and 4 to 10 weeks duration for panic disorder; however, patients with panic disorder have been treated on an open basis without any apparent loss of benefit.
The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. The Most Popular Prescription Drugs". Retrieved 16 June A Review of the Literature". Comprehensive Review of Psychiatry. Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy 5th ed. Retrieved 22 January The primary care companion for CNS disorders. A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine, and Misdiagnosis. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 13 February Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 1 October Given the millions of prescriptions written for benzodiazepines about million in , relatively few individuals increase their dose on their own initiative or engage in drug-seeking behavior.
World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 3 August Archived from the original on 18 December Retrieved 7 December Archived from the original on 13 September Prediction of Alprazolam Transfer into Milk". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
Fear of Teratogenic Risk and Impact of Counselling". Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. American Journal of Psychiatry. Integration of Theoretical and Clinical Perspectives". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Retrieved 9 April Results for Two Benzodiazepines". Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology.
Archived from the original on 19 August Results from a Multicenter Trial. Patient Acceptance, Side Effects, and Safety". Archives of General Psychiatry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi in Japanese. Archived from the original PDF on 9 July John's Wort Hypericum perforatum: A Review of the Clinical Evidence".
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. John's Wort Drug Interactions". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. An Updated Systematic Review". Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications. How They Work and How to Withdraw". Retrieved 31 October Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved 10 December The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology.
Get medical help right away if any of these very serious side effects occur: Who should not take Alprazolam ER? This medication is used to treat the panic and anxiety symptoms associated with panic disorder. Alprazolam belongs to a class of medications called benzodiazepines which act on the brain and nerves central nervous system to produce a calming effect. It works by enhancing the effects of a certain natural chemical in the body GABA.
Read the Medication Guide provided by your pharmacist before you start taking alprazolam and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually once daily in the morning. Do not take with a high- fat meal because doing so can increase the risk of side effects.
Do not crush or chew extended-release tablets. Doing so can release all of the drug at once, increasing the risk of side effects. Also, do not split the tablets unless they have a score line and your doctor or pharmacist tells you to do so. Swallow the whole or split tablet without crushing or chewing. Dosage is based on your medical condition, age, and response to treatment. Your dose may be gradually increased until the drug starts working well. Follow your doctor's instructions closely to reduce the risk of side effects.
This medication may cause withdrawal reactions, especially if it has been used regularly for a long time or in high doses. In such cases, withdrawal symptoms such as seizures may occur if you suddenly stop using this medication. To prevent withdrawal reactions, your doctor may reduce your dose gradually. Report any withdrawal reactions right away. Though it helps many people, this medication may sometimes cause addiction. Take this medication exactly as prescribed to lower the risk of addiction.
Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details. When this medication is used for a long time, it may not work as well. Talk with your doctor if this medication stops working well. What conditions does Alprazolam ER treat? If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. To minimize dizziness and lightheadedness , get up slowly when rising from a seated or lying position.
Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects. Tell your doctor right away if any of these unlikely but serious side effects occur: Get medical help right away if these rare but very seriousyellowing eyes or skin , seizures.
A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction , including: This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.
In Canada - Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at List Alprazolam ER side effects by likelihood and severity. Before taking alprazolam , tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other benzodiazepines such as diazepam , lorazepam ; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.
Before using this medication , tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Alcohol or marijuana can make you more dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs alertness until you can do it safely. Talk to your doctor if you are using marijuana. Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use including prescription drugs , nonprescription drugs, and herbal products.
Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially loss of coordination and drowsiness. These side effects can increase the risk of falling. Alprazolam is not recommended for use during pregnancy due to the potential for harm to an unborn baby.